Tongroon, M., Suebwong, A., Kananont, M., Panassorn, S. et al., "50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 20% Blend of High Quality Palm Biodiesel (H-FAME)," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1736, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1736.
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km. Overall assessment on the use of B20 from Palm HFAME in unmodified common-rail vehicle over 50,000km revealed no significant difference from the normal diesel criteria. Maximum torque and power were within 1.9% and 0.6% variation from rated values throughout 50,000km, respectively. Euro IV emission regulation was clear for all NOx, HC+NOx, CO and PM.