Tiikoja, H., Auriemma, F., and Lavrentjev, J., "Damping of Acoustic Waves in Straight Ducts and Turbulent Flow Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1816, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1816.
In this paper the propagation of acoustic plane waves in turbulent, fully developed flow is studied by means of an experimental investigation carried out in a straight, smooth-walled duct.The presence of a coherent perturbation, such as an acoustic wave in a turbulent confined flow, generates the oscillation of the wall shear stress. In this circumstance a shear wave is excited and superimposed on the sound wave. The turbulent shear stress is modulated by the shear wave and the wall shear stress is strongly affected by the turbulence. From the experimental point of view, it results in a measured damping strictly connected to the ratio between the thickness of the acoustic sublayer, which is frequency dependent, and the thickness of the viscous sublayer of the turbulent mean flow, the last one being dependent on the Mach number. By reducing the turbulence, the viscous sublayer thickness increases and the wave propagation is mainly dominated by convective effects.In the present work, the damping and wall impedance have been extracted from the measured complex wavenumber, which represents the most important parameter used to characterize the wave propagation. An experimental approach, referred to as iterative plane wave decomposition, has been used in order to obtain the results. The investigations have been carried out at low Mach number turbulent flows, low Helmholtz numbers and low shear wavenumbers. The aim is to overcome a certain lack of experimental results found by the authors of the most recent models for the plane wave propagation in turbulent flows, such as Knutsson et al.  and Weng et al. .