Wang, T., Deng, W., Wang, Y., Chen, Y. et al., "Map-Based Positioning Method for Vehicle Trajectory Control," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Electron. Electr. Syst. 10(1):57-63, 2017, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1899.
Aimed to provide an effective solution for control-oriented applications, this paper proposes a novel method using a high-precision digital map to achieve high-accuracy positioning with fast updating rate. First, the map is developed using a high-definition LiDAR (Velodyne HDL 64E) and a RTK-GNSS system, which contains lane-level waypoints, road width, curb and typical obstacles along the road. Next, a robust version of ICP (Iterative Closest Point) is proposed to clean the corresponding points of large errors on map matching (MM). Finally, based on the large set of data from the environmental map, an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is applied to fuse GNSS signal and dead reckoning (DR) to estimate the position. Thus the searching scope on the map can be considerably reduced so that the matching speed can be greatly improved. The high-precision digital map can be used not only for global path planning, but also for local driving detection and path planning. Experimental results demonstrate that even under urban environment with possible occlusion by buildings and trees, the positioning accuracy can still reach within 10cm with update rate to be up to 20Hz.