Particulate air pollution from road traffic currently represents significant environmental and health issue. Attention is also paid to the “non-exhaust pollution sources,” which includes brake wear debris. During each brake application, the airborne and nonairborne particles are emitted into the environment due to wear. High temperatures and pressures on the friction surfaces initiate chemical and morphological changes of the initial components of brake pads and rotating counterparts. Understanding of impact of matter released from brakes on health is vital. Numerous studies clearly demonstrated that particulate matter caused potential adverse effects related to cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, stimulation of proinflammatory factors, and mutagenicity on the cellular level. This paper compiles our main results in the field of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity of airborne brake wear particles. The brake wear particles were generated using an automotive brake dynamometer. In vitro human peripheral blood cell model was used for the genotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Assessment of aquatic toxicity was performed on the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. Obtained results point to potency of toxicity related to the generated airborne brake wear debris.