Sutherlin, R. and Reed, D., "CVJ and Knuckle Design Optimization to Protect Inboard Wheel Bearing Seals from Splash," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 9(3):1255-1263, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1956.
For higher mileage vehicles, noise from contaminant ingress is one of the largest durability issues for wheel bearings. The mileage that wheel bearing sealing issues increase can vary due to multiple factors, such as the level of corrosion for the vehicle and the mating components around the wheel bearing. In general, sealing issues increase after 20,000 to 30,000 km. Protecting the seals from splash is a key step in extending bearing life. Benchmarking has shown a variety of different brake corner designs to protect the bearing from splash. This report examines the effect of factors from different designs, such as the radial gap between constant velocity joint (CVJ) slinger and the knuckle, knuckle labyrinth height and varying slinger designs to minimize the amount of splash to the bearing inboard seal. This report reviews some of the bearing seal failure modes caused by splash. This study also discusses the test methodology to confirm the robustness of the various designs and provides information on the effectiveness of different features to protect the corner from splash.