A mobile robotic system is presented as a new approach for machining applications of large aircraft components. Huge and heavy workshop machines are commonly used for components with large dimensions. The system presented in this paper consists of a standard serial robot kinematics and a mobile platform as well as a stereo camera system for optical measurements. Investigations of the entire system show that the mechanical design of the mobile platform has no significant influence on the machining accuracy. With mobile machines referencing becomes an important issue. This paper introduces an optical method for determining the position of the mobile platform in relation to the component and shows its accuracy limits. Furthermore, a method for increasing the absolute accuracy of the robots end-effector with help of stereo camera vision is presented. This publication shows that the mobile robotic system yields an efficient possibility for advanced machining processes of large-scaled aircraft structures in the Factory of the Future.