For the purpose of developing onboard gasoline reforming technology for higher octane number fuel on demand, octane number enhancement of gasoline surrogate by aerobic oxidation using N-hydroxyphthalimide catalyst was investigated. At first, octane numbers of the oxygen-containing products from alkane and aromatic compound were estimated using a fuel ignition analyzer. As a result, not only alcohol but also ketones and aldehydes have higher octane numbers than the original alkanes and aromatic compound. Next, gasoline surrogate was oxidized aerobically with N-hydroxyphthalimide derivative catalyst and cobalt catalyst at conditions below 100 °C. As a result, fuel molecules were oxidized to produce alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids. N-hydroxyphthalimide derivative catalyst with higher solubility in gasoline surrogate has higher oxidation ability. Furthermore, the estimated octane number of the oxidized gasoline surrogate improves 17 RON. Thus, there is promise in developing and onboard aerobic oxidation reforming process to produce higher octane fuel.