Hoag, K., Mangold, B., Alger, T., Abidin, Z. et al., "A Study Isolating the Effect of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on Gasoline Engine Combustion Chamber Development," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(4):2022-2029, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2177.
A unique single cylinder engine was used to assess engine performance and combustion characteristics at three different strokes, with all other variables held constant. The engine utilized a production four-valve, pentroof cylinder head with an 86mm bore. The stock piston was used, and a variable deck height design allowed three crankshafts with strokes of 86, 98, and 115mm to be tested. The compression ratio was also held constant. The engine was run with a controlled boost-to-backpressure ratio to simulate turbocharged operation, and the valve events were optimized for each operating condition using intake and exhaust cam phasers. EGR rates were swept from zero to twenty percent under low and high speed conditions, at MBT and maximum retard ignition timings. The increased stroke engines demonstrated efficiency gains under all operating conditions, as well as measurably reduced 10-to-90 percent burn durations. The results were quite non-linear, with the majority of the gains achieved in going from the 1:1 to 0.87:1 bore-to-stroke ratio cases. The further change to 0.75:1 showed significantly diminished returns. Flame speed and chamber geometry estimates were used to project further advantages at reduced bore and constant displacement.