Du, C., Andersson, M., and Andersson, S., "Effects of Nozzle Geometry on the Characteristics of an Evaporating Diesel Spray," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(3):493-513, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2197.
The effects of nozzle geometry on diesel spray characteristics were studied in a spray chamber under evaporating conditions using three single-hole nozzles, one cylindrical and two convergent, designated N1 (outlet diameter 140 μm, k-factor 0), N2 (outlet diameter 140 μm, k-factor 2) and N3 (outlet diameter 136 μm, k-factor 2). Spray experiments were performed with each nozzle at two constant gas densities (15 and 30 kg/m3) and an ambient temperature (673 K) at which evaporation occurs, with injection pressures ranging from 800 to 1600 bar. A light absorption and scattering method using visible and UV light was implemented, and shadow images of liquid and vapor phase fuel were recorded with high-speed video cameras. The cylindrical nozzle N1 yielded larger local vapor cone angles than the convergent nozzles N2 and N3 at both gas densities, and the difference became larger as the injection pressure increased. The vapor phase penetration values for nozzle N1 and N3 were quite similar and always lower than those for N2. This is consistent with the impingement measurements, which showed that the momentum flux of nozzle N1 was only slightly greater than that of nozzle N3, while that of nozzle N2 was substantially greater. The vapor volume fractions measured along the spray’s center line were well explained by the one-dimensional transient diesel jet model, indicating that diesel spray vaporization is controlled by turbulent fuel-air mixing.