Lu, Z., Han, J., Wang, M., Cai, H. et al., "Well-to-Wheels Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Use of Vehicles with Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines on Low Octane Gasoline-Like Fuel," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(3):527-545, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2208.
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins. The overall efficiency of the refinery does not change significantly because both the purchased energy and the refinery fuel production increase in response to the introduction of the LOF production. The refinery energy efficiency of LOF is approximately 0.8 and 1.6 percentage points higher than that of gasoline and diesel, respectively. Taking into account a 25% fuel economy gain relative to the regular gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), the per-mile-based WTW GHG emissions of the LOF GCI ICEV are estimated to be 22% and 9% lower than those of the today’s gasoline and diesel ICEVs, respectively; and the per-mile-based WTW fossil energy use is 18% and 6% lower than gasoline and diesel ICEVs, respectively.