LI, H., Yu, L., Ouyang, L., and Sun, S., "An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Ternary Blends for Gasoline Surrogates in a Shock Tube," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2257, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2257.
The ignition delay time of toluene reference fuels composed of iso-Octane, n-heptane and toluene was studied in a shock tube under the conditions of medium to high temperature ranges, different pressures (10-20 bar), and various equivalence ratios (0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2) by reflected waves.Three different ternary blends, TRF2 (42.8% iso-Octane/13.7% n-heptane/43.5% toluene), TRF3 (65% iso-Octane/10% n-heptane/25% toluene) and TRF4 (87.2% iso-Octane/6.3% n-heptane/6.5% toluene), with the same Research Octane Number of 95 (RON=95) were constructed. The experimental results showed that there was an obvious negative correlation between the ignition delay time of the toluene reference fuels and the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio; and, a minimal discrepancy of TRF2, TRF3, and TRF4 was measured at pressures of 10 and 20 bar in a stoichiometric ratio. A detailed chemical mechanism was established to research the surrogate combustion properties. With the sensitivities and reaction pathway analysis, it was easy found that the model captured the autoignition behavior of all three ternary gasoline surrogates in the shock tube experiments, especially at high pressure and under rich fuel conditions.