Devlin, M., Williams, D., Glasgow, M., Hux, K. et al., "Effect of Fluid Flow through Clutch Material on Torque Fluctuations in Clutches," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2343, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2343.
Improving vehicle fuel efficiency is a key market driver in the automotive industry. Typically lubricant chemists focus on reducing viscosity and friction to reduce parasitic energy losses in order to improve automotive fuel efficiency. However, in a transmission other factors may be more important. If an engine can operate at high torque levels the conversion of chemical energy in the fuel to mechanical energy is dramatically increased. However high torque levels in transmissions may cause NVH to occur. The proper combination of friction material and fluid can be used to address this issue. Friction in clutches is controlled by asperity friction and hydrodynamic friction. Asperity friction can be controlled with friction modifiers in the ATF. Hydrodynamic friction control is more complex because it involves the flow characteristics of friction materials and complex viscosity properties of the fluid. This paper shows how NVH and torque capacity can be controlled by optimizing the flow characteristics of friction materials and the complex viscosity of fluids.