Wood, E., Duran, A., and Kelly, K., "EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways," SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 9(2):94-104, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-8017.
In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom’s commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. The national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model certification tool as well as in dynamometer testing of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and their powertrains.