Theile, M., Hassel, E., Thévenin, D., Buchholz, B. et al., "Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(4):2320-2336, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-9048.
Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0  has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV). Afterwards, the parameterized spray model is validated using experimental data measured in a pressure spray chamber. Finally, results obtained with the combined model are discussed and used to analyze transient mixture formation and to give a detailed insight into cycle-to-cycle fluctuations associated with the turbulent mixing process in an internal combustion engine (ICE).