Chaudhari, N., Sethi, S., and Srinivasa, R., "Offset Driveline for Tractors," SAE Technical Paper 2016-28-0128, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-28-0128.
Tractors with 4WD drive perform better in slick, off road or muddy conditions (especially in Agricultural and constructional Field applications) where torque is required at all the wheels. The purpose of four wheel drive or all-wheel drive is to transmit power to all the wheels. In case of 2WD the power from engine is transferred to the rear wheels of a tractor through transmission. But in case of 4 WD tractors and construction equipment, power from engine is transferred to the front wheels through drop box and the driveline (propeller shaft).This Paper describes the need of an offset driveline where there is an offset between the Drop box output shaft center and the front axle input shaft center.This offset is the result of zero keel angle of the tractor. In order to maintain zero keel angle and transfer power to front wheels, an offset driveline with three shafts has been design &developed. Additionally a concept for an offset driveline which has been experimentally proven for tractors and construction equipment is also discussed.