Yoshida, Y., Takeda, K., Lin, Z., Yamada, M. et al., "A Study of Knocking in a Lean Mixture Using an Optically Accessible Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2016-32-0002, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-32-0002.
Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur. The results also showed that autoignition accompanied by pressure oscillations occurred under the influence of the preceding cycle.