Takeda, K., Takashi, S., Yoshida, Y., Lin, Z. et al., "A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization," SAE Technical Paper 2016-32-0005, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-32-0005.
In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.