This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.