Lakshminarayanan, P. and Aswin, S., "Estimation of Particulate Matter from Smoke, Oil Consumption and Fuel Sulphur," SAE Technical Paper 2016-32-0066, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-32-0066.
Particulates from diesel engine consisting of particles of carbon, sulphates, oil, fuel and water are measured by filtering a sample diluted in a partial or full flow tunnel according to strict standards and weighing them. However, these methods suffer from high initial and running costs. On the other hand, filter smoke meters measure the light reflected from a filter paper through which a known volume of exhaust gas is passed and opacity meters measure light absorbed by a standard column of exhaust. They measure visible black smoke easily at reasonable expenditure. Today, these simple instruments are highly developed to control measurement noise, resolution and repeatability, and can be used to estimate carbon soot precisely. Adding contribution of oil and sulphates from fuel helps in estimating the Particulate Matter measured in ISO 8178 R49, D2 and C1 as well as ESC cycles up to EU-Stage IIIA, India CEV Stage IIIA, Euro III (equivalent to India BS III on-road) and India CPCB2 emission standards. In this paper, a method is given to predict PM from fuel properties, engine oil consumption and measured smoke. The estimated values of PM compared favourably with the measured values with confidence margins enough to go for type testing.