Setlur, S., Vemuri, S., Subramoniam, C., and Sharma, R., "Effect of Ethanol Blended Fuel on Fuel Injected Two Wheeler Vehicular Mass Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2016-32-0075, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-32-0075.
The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on Vehicular mass emissions was investigated on a spark ignited single cylinder closed loop fuel injected vehicle complying Euro III emission norms. Fuels blended with 10(E10) & 20(E10) percentage by volume of ethanol were taken up to study their effect on vehicular mass emissions on World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) without any modification to the vehicle. The cycle is a simulation of real world driving conditions. In WMTC Cycle, maximum CO emissions were obtained with E10 fuel which showed an increase of 13%. THC emissions decreased by 10% and NOx emissions remained the same when the ethanol blend increases. Fuel economy decreases by 5% with use of E20 on the cycle.