da Silva, G. and Kaminski, P., "From Embedded Systems (ES) to Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS): An Analysis of Transitory Stage of Automotive Manufacturing in the Industry 4.0 Scenario," SAE Technical Paper 2016-36-0230, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-36-0230.
Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed. The work is finished with conclusions and recommendations for future developments.