Zachos, M., "Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0020, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0020.
Since 2001, all sensitive information by U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)140-2 Security Requirements. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective hardware. This paper describes strong FIPS 140-2 encryption for vehicle communications, using as an example the J1939 protocol. The encrypted J1939 data and commands are tamper-proof, since they cannot be changed or altered -- accidentally or otherwise. The encrypted J1939 data and proprietary commands can be stored and transported securely, giving no unauthorized read access. The examples will show J1939 encryption, including both wired and wireless communication. Two-factor authentication is achieved, since both the hardware and a decryption key are need to decrypt. The same hardware can provide both private-key encryption (traditional symmetric encryption) and public-key encryption (asymmetric, digital signatures).