Development of a High Fidelity CAE Model for Predicting Brake System Temperatures

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-0145

Published:
  • 2017-03-28
Abstract:
The primary function of the brake system is to convert the kinetic energy of the vehicle to heat which is then dissipated to the environment. The performance characteristics of many of the components within the brake system are temperature dependant; with numerous issues associated with excessive temperatures such as vaporisation of the brake fluid, degradation of the friction coefficient at the disc to pad interface, thermo-mechanical deformation of the brake rotor, excessive wear and numerous NVH problems. Therefore it is clear that in order to avoid the customer encountering these failure modes the brakes must be specified with sufficient thermal inertia and cooling for the intended vehicle and drive cycle. This paper presents a high fidelity CAE technique for predicting the temperature of the front brake and the surrounding suspension components whilst installed on vehicle. To define the boundary conditions the process utilises a coupled unsteady CFD and thermal solver to accurately predict the convective heat transfer coefficients across a range of vehicle speeds. A 1-D model is used to predict the brake energy inputs and the vehicle speed-time curves during the drive cycle based on key vehicle parameters including wide-open-throttle performance, drive train losses, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag etc. The convective heat transfer coefficients are interpolated based on the vehicle speed curve to generate the time varying convective heat transfer coefficients for each component. These boundary conditions are then applied to a transient thermal model consisting of the brake and suspension system. The results have been validated against test data for both saloon and SUV vehicle types, utilising both McPherson strut and multi-link suspension with front and rear mounted brake callipers. In both cases the CAE model was shown to be capable of predicting the brake surface temperatures with a higher degree of accuracy than 1-D disc temperature models.
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