Feng, L. and Hrnjak, P., "Refrigerant Charge Imbalance in a Mobile Reversible Air Conditioning-Heat Pump System," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0177, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0177.
This paper presents the study of refrigerant charge imbalance between A/C (cooling) mode and HP (heating) mode of a mobile reversible system. Sensitivities of cooling and heating capacity and energy efficiency with respect to refrigerant charge were investigated. Optimum refrigerant charge level for A/C mode was found to be larger than that for HP mode, primarily due to larger condenser size in A/C mode. Refrigerant charge retention in components at both modes were measured in the lab by quick close valve method. Modeling of charge retention in heat exchangers was compared to experimental measurements. Effect of charge imbalance on oil circulation was also discussed.