Zhao, Y., Zhou, H., and Liu, Y., "A Cost-Effective Offline Routing Optimization Approach to Employee Shuttle Services," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0240, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0240.
Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle are two key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars annually in third party vendors to offer shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees at fixed locations and provide them daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient fixed routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operating efficiency behind these services. They can significantly reduce operating costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus numbers, while maintaining the same quality of service. This study developed an off-line optimization routing method for employee shuttle services including regular work shifts and demand based shifts (e.g. overtime shifts) in some regions.