Hu, X., Sun, X., and Golovashchenko, S., "The Role of Second Phase Hard Particles on Hole Stretchability of Two AA6xxx Alloys," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0307, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0307.
The hole stretchability of two Aluminum Alloys (AA6111 and AA6022) are studied by using a two stages integrated finite element framework where the edge geometry and edge damages from the hole piercing processes were considered in the subsequent hole expansion processes. Experimentally it has been found that AA6022 has higher hole expansion ratios than those of AA6111. This observation has been nicely captured by finite element simulations. The main cause of differences have been identified to the volume fractions of the random distributed second phase hard particles which play a critical role in determining the fracture strains of the materials.