Ohtani, H., Ellwood, K., Pereira, G., Chinen, T. et al., "Extensional Rheology: New Dimension of Characterizing Automotive Fluids," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0364, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0364.
This paper describes the basic principles of extensional rheometry, and the successful application to a variety of automotive fluids, including gear lubricants, paints, and forming lubricants. These fluids are used under very complex flow fields containing strong extensional (elongational) components. While exact derivation of extensional viscosities involves sophisticated theories, the measurement of liquid filament break-up time can provide fruitful information. Gear lubes showed different break-up time according to the kinematic viscosities. Addition of viscosity modifier (acrylic copolymer) significantly increased the breakup time, whereas surfactants had little effect. Clearcoat paint sample increased the breakup time, perhaps due to the deterioration. The waxy stamping lubricant showed remarkable change in the extensional properties as the temperature is raised. The extensional data obtained showed the promise of the technique to understand the performance of these fluids in working conditions (e.g. spraying, coating, and stamping).