Kadoya, Y. and Oshino, Y., "RingMashing to Low-Alloy Steel -Low-Cost Manufacturing Method of the Powertrain Components," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0471, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0471.
By implementation of the core technology of capacitor-resistance welding, RingMash technology, metallic bonding, is developed to manufacture various components. It is the best suited for powertrain components such as transmission gears at low cost. Components made by RingMash are attributed to smaller and lighter transmission. The technology is recommended to manufacture co-axle male-female work pieces bonding, male side diameter is slightly larger than female side hole. RingMashing is a solid state bonding without melting work pieces. The actual RingMashing process is done in ambient atmosphere and does not use filler. RingMashing process itself takes only 100 milliseconds, results very minimum Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ), normally no more than 1 mm. The minimum HAZ achieves excellent structural integration for better performance of transmission. If two work pieces are same metals, spattering free bonding is possible. It is also possible to bond two different metals, cast iron and steel, copper alloy and steel, aluminum alloy and steel, and so on. Another great advantage of RingMashing is fast cycle time. RingMashing process total cycle time, including the replacement time of the work pieces, is between 10 and 15 sec. In case of typical bonding of low alloy steel, SCM415H, 50mm diameter: excellent bonding condition is obtainable with bonding depth of 2 to 3.5 mm all the way around. The bonding area is realized as solid state condition without melting the work pieces. Metal structure of the vicinity of the bonding area is made larger plastic flow. If the electric current is too large, spattering occurs. If the electric current is too small, bonding strength becomes insufficient.