Liu, Y., Sangeorzan, B., and Alkidas, A., "Experimental Investigations Into Free-Circular Upward-Impinging Oil-Jet Heat Transfer of Automotive Pistons," SAE Int. J. Engines 10(3):2017.
The purpose of this research was to measure and correlate the area-average heat transfer coefficients for free, circular upward-impinging oil-jets onto two automotive pistons having different undercrown shapes and different diameters. For the piston heat transfer studies, two empirical area-average Nusselt number correlations were developed. One was based on the whole piston undercrown surface area with the Nusselt number based on the nozzle diameter, and the other was based on the oil-jet impingement area with the Nusselt number based on the oil-jet effective impingement diameter. The correlations can predict the 95% and 94% of the experimental measurements within 30% error, respectively. The first correlation is simpler to use and can be employed for cases in which the oil jet wets the whole piston undercrown. The latter may be more useful for larger pistons or higher Prandtl number conditions in which the oil jet wets only a portion of the undercrown. Furthermore, these correlations are suggested to be applicable in numerical studies of piston oil-jet cooling. Validations by using steady-state numerical simulations have also been performed and showed very good agreements between the simulated and measured results.