Catapano, F., Di Iorio, S., Luise, L., Sementa, P. et al., "In-Cylinder Soot Formation and Exhaust Particle Emissions in a Small Displacement Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Ethanol Mixed and Dual Fueled with Gasoline," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0653, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0653.
This paper aims to correlate the in-cylinder soot formation and the exhaust particle emissions for different methods of gasoline/ethanol fueling in spark ignition engine. In particular, the engine was fueled with gasoline and ethanol separately and not, in this latter case both blended (E30) and dual fueled (EDF). For E30 the bend was direct injected and for EDF, the ethanol was injected in the combustion chamber and the gasoline into the intake duct. For both the injection configurations, the same percentage of ethanol in gasoline was supplied: 30%v/v. The measurements were carried out at 2000 and 4000 rpm, under full load, and stoichiometric condition, in small single cylinder optical engine.2D-digital imaging was performed to follow the combustion process with a high spatial and temporal resolution through a full-bore optical piston. The two-color pyrometry was applied for the analysis of the in cylinder soot formation in the combustion chamber. Particle mass concentration was evaluated at the exhaust by means of a smoke meter. The particle size distribution function was measured in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm by an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS).It was observed that the use of ethanol allows the reduction of soot formation and particles emission in DI configuration. However, for E30 the in-cylinder soot formation and emissions are larger than EDF. This result is mainly due to the different contribution of gasoline. Optical analysis shows that in E30 the direct injected gasoline causes wide diffusive flames where soot formation is promoted; whereas for EDF the better evaporation and mixing of gasoline, typical of PFI configuration, results in few, small, and localized diffusive flames producing smaller particle emissions.