vafamehr, H., Cairns, A., and Moslemin Koupaie, M., "The Competing Chemical and Physical Effects of Transient Fuel Enrichment During Heavy Knock in an Optical SI Engine Using Ethanol Blends," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0665, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0665.
The experimental work was concerned with improving understanding of the competing effects of the latent heat of vaporization and auto-ignition delay times of different ethanol blended fuels during heaving knocking combustion. The unique single cylinder SI engine employed included full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding unusually high in-cylinder pressures. Heavy knock was deliberately induced under moderate loads using inlet air heating and a primary reference fuel blend of reduced octane rating. High-speed chemiluminescence imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement were used to evaluate the combustion events. Under normal operation the engine was operated under port fuel injection with a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture. Multiple centered auto-ignition events were regularly observed, with knock intensities of up to ~40bar. Additional excess fuel of varied blend was then introduced directly into the end-gas in short transient bursts. As the mass of excess fuel was progressively increased a trade-off was apparent, with knock intensity first increasing by up to 60% before lower unburned gas temperatures suppressed knock under extremely rich conditions. This trade-off is not usually observed during conventional low intensity knock suppression via over-fuelling and has been associated with the reducing auto-ignition delay times outweighing the influence of charge cooling and ratio of specific heats. Ethanol has the highest latent heat of vaporization amongst the other fuels directly injected and was more effective to reduce knock intensity albeit still aggravating knock under slightly rich conditions. Overall, the results demonstrate the risks in employing excess fuel to suppress knock deep within a heavy knocking combustion regime (potentially including a Super-Knock regime).