Kolodziej, C., Pamminger, M., Sevik, J., Wallner, T. et al., "Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 10(1):82-94, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0671.
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed. Results showed that fuel laminar flame speed can have as big an effect on lean or EGR dilute engine operation as engine design parameters, with the largest effects seen during EGR dilute operation and when changes were made to cylinder charge motion.