Investigation of the Effect of Lubricant Additives on LSPI Frequency

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-0685

Published:
  • 2017-03-28
Abstract:
To evaluate the impact of common lubricant additives on the frequency of low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI), a statistically-relevant test method was developed and used to evaluate purpose-blended lubricants which allowed isolation of specific additive compounds. For the present work, the levels of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), calcium sulfonate, and molybdenum were varied roughly between the minimum and maximum levels expected in modern passenger car motor oil formulations. The results showed a strong positive correlation between the level of calcium sulfonate and the LSPI rate, and that near-zero LSPI frequency could be achieved at the lowest concentrations of the additive. Replacing calcium sulfonate with magnesium sulfonate also generated near-zero LSPI frequency, even with a normal additive concentration. The other additives under evaluation showed mild negative correlations between additive concentration and LSPI rate. These results indicate the potential to impact LSPI frequency through changes in the motor oil formulations, though the impact of those changes on other performance characteristics of the lubricants were not considered in this study.
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