Rounthwaite, N., Williams, R., McGivery, C., Jiang, J. et al., "A Chemical and Morphological Study of Diesel Injector Nozzle Deposits - Insights into their Formation and Growth Mechanisms," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 10(1):106-114, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0798.
Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques. Deposits produced in the injector nozzles of the industry standard fouling test (CEC F-98-08 DW10B bench engine) were compared with those formed in a vehicle driven on a chassis dynamometer, using a drive cycle more representative of real world vehicle conditions, to explore the effects of differing drive cycles and engine technologies. Fouling in all tests was accelerated with the addition of 1ppm zinc neodecanoate, as specified in the CEC DW10B test. This in-depth characterisation revealed a complex multi-layered system of deposits inside the diesel injector nozzle. Through analysing these layers the mechanisms enabling the initial deposit formation and growth can be postulated.