Ruth, D. and O'Connor, J., "Development and Verification of Reduced-Order Model for Diesel Spray Penetration and Spreading during Wall Impingement," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0814, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0814.
The mixing of a diesel spray with in-cylinder gases is driven by both turbulent mixing during the free-jet penetration phase and by mixing during the jet’s impingement on surfaces such as the piston bowl. Current reduced order models, and many experiments, focus solely on the free-jet penetration phase, although jet-wall interaction occurs during a significant portion of the duration of a fuel injection in both small-bore and large-bore engines. A control volume-based model for the spreading of an impinging spray along a flat wall is presented as a first step towards capturing key jet processes during the impingement phase of fuel injection. Schlieren measurements of impinging gaseous jets are used to evaluate the model. The impinging jet model is then coupled with the free jet model of Musculus and Kattke to compare global entrainment effects at various diesel conditions, providing a means for evaluating the effects of combustion parameters on entrainment with more realistic engine geometries.