Carrell, J., Slatter, T., Little, U., and Lewis, R., "Combining DLC, Shot Blasting, Chemical Dip and Nano Fullerene Surface Treatments to Reduce Wear and Friction when Used with Bio-Lubricants in Automotive Contacts," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0878, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0878.
The interaction of three bio-lubricant base oil candidates with seventeen combinations of surface treatment was studied, comparing wear scar volumes and coefficient of friction results. Substrates were initially ground, then a combination of superfinished, Dymon-iC™ DLC, an impact technique of ultra-fine shot blasting method doped with Tin and Molybdenum Disulfide, a calcium based chemical dip containing calcium sulfate and nano fullerene, were used.DLC is well reported to reduce friction. Some reports suggest wear in coated contacts is independent of the type of lubricant used, whilst others report that bio-lubricants offer reduced friction and wear in combination with DLC. Shot blasting can also reduce wear and friction, due to the surface dimples acting as lubricant reservoirs, making hydrodynamic lubrication more likely. Previous work has also explored the performance of surface texturing in combination with coatings, some reporting higher friction when surface texturing and DLC is used. As a surface coating, fullerene has been shown to have significantly lower wear and friction than DLC coatings. The calcium based chemical treatment used has no published data.A ball on flat reciprocating wear tester was used with bio-lubricant base oil candidates, jojoba and soybean oil, with a mineral base oil used for comparison. Wear scars were analysed using a scanning electron microscope.Coefficient of friction results from testing with bio-lubricant base oil candidates’ soybean and jojoba oil were lower than tests with mineral base oil. A hybridized coating combination of superfinish, diamond like carbon and chemical dip gave the highest wear protection for tests with the mineral base oil and bio-lubricant base oil candidate soybean oil. A hybridized coating combination of superfinish, impact technique and chemical dip gave highest wear protection when tested with bio-lubricant base oil candidate jojoba oil. Results showed no overall improvement in wear protection when substrates were processed with the impact technique. Superfinishing substrates improved the performance of both the chemical dip and DLC.