The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for High Efficiency Gasoline Engines of the Future

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-0918

  • 2017-03-28
In anticipation that stoichiometric gasoline engines of the future will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with significantly improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the thermal durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between the Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is being funded by the US Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150oC. A reactor was set up at Ford to follow the catalyst testing protocols established by the USDRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) team for evaluating catalysts for stoichiometric gasoline direct-injection (S-GDI) engines; this protocol specifies a stoichiometric blend of CO/H2, NO, C3H6, C2H4, C3H8, O2, H2O, and CO2 for the catalyst evaluations. This paper summarizes some of the lessons learned from the reactor testing at Ford and also discusses the results on some of the initial catalyst formulations in the project that consisted of precious metals on mixed oxide supports. The temperature ramp rate had little effect on the measured lightoff performance, but the O2 level around stoichiometry and interactions between the different gas species were found to have significant effects on the catalyst light off temperatures.
Also in:
  • SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants - V126-4
  • SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants - V126-4EJ
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