Lambert, C., Chanko, T., Jagner, M., Hangas, J. et al., "Analysis of Ash in Low Mileage, Rapid Aged, and High Mileage Gasoline Exhaust Particle Filters," SAE Int. J. Engines 10(4):2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0930.
To meet future particle mass and particle number standards, gasoline vehicles may require particle control, either by way of an exhaust gas filter and/or engine modifications. Soot levels for gasoline engines are much lower than diesel engines; however, non-combustible material (ash) will be collected that can potentially cause increased backpressure, reduced power, and lower fuel economy. The purpose of this work was to examine the ash loading of gasoline particle filters (GPFs) during rapid aging cycles and at real time low mileages, and compare the filter performances to both fresh and very high mileage filters. Current rapid aging cycles for gasoline exhaust systems are designed to degrade the three-way catalyst washcoat both hydrothermally and chemically to represent full useful life catalysts. The ash generated during rapid aging was low in quantity although similar in quality to real time ash. Filters were also examined after a low mileage break-in of approximately 3000 km. It was found that ash levels as low as 1 g can have a significant impact on filtration efficiency with a relatively small impact on backpressure. The location, composition, and morphology of low ash loadings was compared to a filter aged to 150,000 real miles.