Cho, H., Brewbaker, T., Upadhyay, D., Fulton, B. et al., "Limitations of Real-Time Engine-Out NOx Estimation in Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0963, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0963.
Many excellent papers have been written about the subject of estimating engine-out NOx on diesel engines based on real-time available data. The claimed accuracy of these models is typically around 6-10% on validation data sets with known inputs. This reported accuracy typically ignores input uncertainties, thus arriving at an optimistic estimate of the model accuracy in a real-time application. In our paper we analyze the effect of input uncertainty on the accuracy of engine-out NOx estimates via a numerical Monte Carlo simulation and show that this effect can be significant. Even though our model is based on an in-cylinder pressure sensor, this sensor is limited in its capability to reduce the effect of other measured inputs on the model.