Heide, J., Karlsson, M., and Altimira, M., "Numerical Analysis of Urea-SCR Sprays under Cross-Flow Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0964, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0964.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx through injection of Urea-Water-Solution (UWS) into the hot exhaust gas stream is an effective and extensively used strategy in internal combustion engines. Even though actual SCR systems have 95-96% de-NOx efficiency over test cycles, real driving emissions of NOx are a challenge, proving that there is room for improvement. The efficiency of the NOx conversion is highly dependent on the size of UWS droplets and their spatial distribution. These factors are, in turn, mainly determined by the spray characteristics and its interaction with the exhaust gas flow. The main purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the sensitivity to the modelling framework of the evaporation and mixing of the spray upstream of the catalyst. The dynamics of discrete droplets is handled through the Lagrangian Particle Tracking framework, with models that account for droplet breakup and coalescence, turbulence effects, and water evaporation. All simulations have been run in the commercial code Ansys Fluent 16.0. Experimental validation of droplet size distribution is carried out through PDPA measurements. Through the present study we have identified suitable modelling setup that provides accurate results with a competitive computational cost. Results also show the importance of accounting for the effects of evaporation and turbulent fluctuations in the droplet phase.