Aslanjan, J., Klauer, C., Perlman, C., Günther, V. et al., "Simulation of a Three-Way Catalyst Using Transient Single and Multi-Channel Models," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0966, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0966.
The three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is the most common catalyst for gasoline engine exhaust gas after treatment. The reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) is achieved via oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and reduction of nitrogen oxides. These conversion effects were simulated in previous works using single-channel approaches and detailed kinetic models. In addition to the single-channel model multiple representative catalyst channels are used in this work to take heat transfer between the channels into account. Furthermore, inlet temperature distribution is considered. Each channel is split into a user given number of cells and each cell is treated like a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR). The simulation is validated against an experimental four-stroke engine setup with emission outputs fed into a TWC. Next to the transient emissions the temperature progress is simulated in order to model the catalyst’s light off temperature. The heat conduction between the channels is modeled to provide proper heat dissipation during the catalytic process. The simulation results show a good agreement to the experimental data with low computational cost.