Nevius, T., Rauker, D., Akita, M., Otsuki, Y. et al., "Investigation of Ultrasonic Flow Measurement for CVS Dilution Air Volume," SAE Int. J. Engines 10(4):2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0994.
Direct measurement of dilution air volume in a Constant Volume emission sampling system may be used to calculate tailpipe exhaust volume, and the total dilution ratio in the CVS. A Remote Mixing Tee (RMT) often includes a subsonic venturi (SSV) flowmeter in series with the dilution air duct. The venturi meter results in a flow restriction and significant pressure drop in the dilution air pipe. An ultrasonic flow meter for a similar dilution air volume offers little flow restriction and negligible pressure drop in the air duct. In this investigation, an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM) replaces the subsonic venturi in a Remote Mixing Tee. The measurement uncertainty and accuracy of the UFM is determined by comparing the real time flow rates and integrated total dilution air volume from the UFM and the dilution air SSV in the RMT. Vehicle tests include FTP and NEDC test cycles with a 3.8L V6 reference vehicle. Initial results show SSV and Ultrasonic Flow dilution air volumes match within 0.5% uncertainty.