Brake Particle Emission Measurements – Testing Method and Vehicle Peculiarities

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-0996

Published:
  • 2017-03-28
Abstract:
Since particle emissions from combustion engines have been reduced during the last decades, the importance of non-exhaust emission sources, such as airborne brake dust, tyre pollution, etc., is increasing. Unlike the powertrain, a conventional vehicle brake is an open system and the sampling of the emitted particles becomes a complex process. The presented study introduces a particular measurement setup for brake particle emission investigations. Beside a brake dynamometer, two solid particle counting systems (SPCS) were used to determine the emitted particle numbers. It must be mentioned that both devices were modified prototypes with a cut-off of 10 nm. During the studies an 18” two-piston frame-design brake caliper, in combination with low-steel brake linings and cast-iron brake discs, was used. As a first result it is shown that the employed setup and test procedure revealed a stabilised behaviour after a few test runs in terms of emitted particle numbers and friction conditions. Nevertheless, it must be stated that an important premise is the use of a special filter system to ensure proper cooling air quality. Another important result is the enhanced sampling point validation. As two similar SPCS devices were used inside the testing chamber and the exhaust duct, the particle numbers could be compared directly for these sampling points. In addition, the two SPCS used for the tests had different evaporation unit temperatures. This method allowed the identification of the role of volatile particles which are expected to be generated during a brake application, especially in case of higher braking temperatures. Last but not least, results of tests with varying inertias are presented and discussed. Since nowadays brake systems are part of modular chassis architectures, the brakes are applied to various vehicle concepts. In this paper the brake particle emissions of a luxury-class sedan and a full-size SUV were investigated and compared for the first time.
Also in:
  • SAE International Journal of Engines - V126-3EJ
  • SAE International Journal of Engines - V126-3
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