Bielaczyc, P., Szczotka, A., and Woodburn, J., "Investigations into Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Multiple Vehicle Types Running on Two Chassis Dynamometer Driving Cycles," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1007, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1007.
This paper reports testing conducted on multiple vehicle types over two European legislative driving cycles (the current NEDC and the incoming WLTC), using a mixture of legislative and non-legislative measurement devices to characterise the particulate emissions and examine the impact of the test cycle and certain vehicle characteristics (engine/fuel type, idle stop system, inertia) on particulate emissions. European legislative measurement techniques were successfully used to quantify particle mass (PM) and number (PN); an AVL Microsoot sensor was also used. Overall, the two driving cycles used in this study had a relatively limited impact on particulate emissions from the test vehicles, but certain differences were visible and in some cases statistically significant. Despite its particulate emissions being low, measurements were made successfully on a CNG vehicle, which showed comparable emissions over the two driving cycles but very low emissions when tested fully warmed up at constant speed.