Llamas, X. and Eriksson, L., "Control-Oriented Compressor Model with Adiabatic Efficiency Extrapolation," SAE Int. J. Engines 10(4):2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1032.
Downsizing and turbocharging with single or multiple stages has been one of the main solutions to decrease fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emissions, while keeping a sufficient power output. An accurate and reliable control-oriented compressor model can be very helpful during the development phase, as well as for engine calibration, control design, diagnostic purposes or observer design. A complete compressor model consisting of mass flow and efficiency models is developed and motivated. The proposed model is not only able to represent accurately the normal region measured in a compressor map but also it is capable to extrapolate to low compressor speeds. Moreover, the efficiency extrapolation is studied by analyzing the known problem with heat transfer from the hot turbine side, which introduces errors in the measurements done in standard gas stands. Since the parameterization of the model is an important and necessary step in the modeling, a tailored parameterization approach is presented based on Total Least Squares. A standard compressor map is the only data required to parameterize the model. The parameterization is tested with a database of more than 230 compressor maps showing that it can deal well with different compressor sizes and characteristics. Also, general initialization values for the model parameters are provided using the complete database parameterization results. The results show that the model accuracy is good and in general achieves relative errors below one percent. A comparison of the model accuracy for compressor maps with and without heat transfer influence is carried out, showing a similar model accuracy for both cases but better when no heat transfer is present. Furthermore, it is shown that the model is capable to predict the efficiency characteristics at low speed of two compressor maps, measured with near adiabatic conditions.