Martin, D. and Rocci, B., "Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurement," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1065, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1065.
Exhaust temperature models are widely used in the automotive industry to estimate catalyst and exhaust gas temperatures and to protect the catalyst and other vehicle hardware against over-temperature conditions. Modeled exhaust temperatures rely on air, fuel, and spark measurements to make their estimate. Errors in any of these measurements can have a large impact on the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, air-fuel imbalances, air leaks, engine coolant temperature (ECT) or air charge temperature (ACT) inaccuracies, or any unforeseen source of heat entering the exhaust may have a large impact on the accuracy of the modeled estimate. Modern universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have heaters with controllers to precisely regulate the oxygen sensing element temperature. These controllers are duty cycle based and supply more or less current to the heating element depending on the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gas. This paper proposes and analyzes a method for using the UEGO heater controller duty cycle to measure exhaust gas temperature at no incremental cost. The analysis shows that such a method can provide an accurate measurement of exhaust gas temperature both in nominal dynamic drive conditions and in the presence of an exotherm from unmodelled sources.