Cubito, C., Rolando, L., Millo, F., Ciuffo, B. et al., "Energy Management Analysis under Different Operating Modes for a Euro-6 Plug-in Hybrid Passenger Car," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1160, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1160.
This article analyses the Energy Management System (EMS) of a Euro 6 C-segment parallel Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) available on the European market, equipped with a Flywheel Alternator Starter (FAS).The car has various selectable operating modes, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV), Blended and Sport, characterized by a different usage of the electric driving with significant effects on the electric range and on CO2 emissions. The different hybrid control strategies were investigated applying the UNECE Regulation 83, used for the European type approval procedure, along the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To evaluate the influence of the forthcoming Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), which will replace the NEDC from September 2017, this testing procedure was also applied. Vehicle testing was carried out on a two-axle chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission LAboratory (VELA) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission.Through a limited amount of information, obtained as the results of the type approval procedure together with the characterization of the high voltage battery, it was possible to highlight, both in Charge Depleting and Charge Sustaining conditions, how the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) works as a function of the battery State of Charge (SOC), vehicle speed, acceleration and coolant temperature.Moreover, the impact of different vehicle operating modes on CO2 emissions and Electric Range, computed as prescribed by the European regulation, was clearly highlighted for the considered driving cycles, pointing out differences of about 20% in terms of electrical range, and of more than 70% in terms of CO2 emissions.