Hayashi, D., Ida, A., Magome, S., Suzuki, T. et al., "Synchrotron X-Ray Visualization and Simulation for Operating Fuel Cell Diffusion Layers," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1188, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1188.
The key challenge in designing a high power density fuel cell is to reduce oxygen transport loss due to liquid water. However, liquid water transport from catalyst layers to channels under operating conditions is not completely understood. Toyota developed a high resolution space and time liquid water visualization technique using synchrotron x-ray (Spring-8) radiography. In addition, a simulation method was created based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify the cell performance relationship to water distribution. The relationship among gas diffusion layer (GDL) parameters, water distribution, and fuel cell performance was clarified by combining the techniques Toyota developed.