Experimental investigation of AC heating method for NMC lithium-ion battery at subzero temperatures

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-1217

Published:
  • 2017-03-28
Abstract:
An alternating current (AC) heating method for a NMC lithium-ion battery with 8Ah capacity is proposed in the paper. The effects of excitation frequency, current amplitudes, and voltage limit condition on the temperature evolution are investigated experimentally. Current amplitudes are set to 24A(3C), 40(5C), and 64A(8C), and excitation frequencies are set to 300Hz, 100Hz, 30Hz, 10Hz, 5Hz, and 1Hz respectively. The voltage limitations are necessary to protect cells from overcharge. Therefore the voltage limit condition (4.2V/2.75V, 4.3V/2.65V, and 4.4V/2.55V) are also considered in depth to verify the feasibility of the AC heating method. The temperature rises prominently as the current increases, and the decrement of frequencies also lead to the obvious growth of battery temperature. The battery obtains the maximum temperature rise at 64A and 1Hz, which takes 1800s to heat up the battery from -25oC to 18oC. When at low frequencies (5Hz, 1Hz) and low temperature, the heating rate deteriorates because of the calibration of the voltage limit protection to current amplitude. But, even with different voltage limitations, the battery can almost achieve same temperature results in 1800s. Therefore, the temperature rise is determined by the current amplitude, voltage limitations, and excitation frequency comprehensively. Efficient temperature rise can be obtained from high impedance at low frequencies. However, high frequency pulse (short-term charging process) is a good innovation to reduce the risk of battery degradation. As a consequence, the experiments presented have shown potential value in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications at subzero temperatures.
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