Extended Range Electric Vehicle Powertrain Simulation, and Comparison with Consideration of Fuel Cell and Metal-air Battery

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-1258

Published:
  • 2017-03-28
Abstract:
The automobile industry has been undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to a clean energy economy, due to economic pressures stemming from the energy crisis and stricter environmental policies. Electric vehicles, powered by lithium-ion batteries have attained a significant market share recently due to their stable performance and maturity as a technology. Electric vehicles suffer from two disadvantages that have limited widespread adoption: charging time and energy density. To mitigate these challenges, vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed different vehicle architectures to extend the vehicle range, including: the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), and Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). This work seeks to compare various powertrains, including: combined power (zinc-air and lithium-ion battery, fuel cell and lithium-ion battery), conventional gasoline powered vehicles (baseline vehicle, ICE engine extended range electric vehicle) and battery electric vehicles (BEV). The parameters of comparison are: energy consumption, range, emissions, cost, and customer acceptance. A unique zinc-air battery model was developed using the vehicle modelling software to perform the analysis, with consideration of research data, current market status, and controls logic of the dual energy systems powertrain. Modelling of the five powertrains was performed using the vehicle modelling software Autonomie. In correspondence with the EcoCar 3 competition, the 2015 Chevrolet Camaro was used as the vehicle architecture platform. A decision matrix was developed to compare these powertrains from the metrics of energy consumption, emissions, customer acceptance, and life cycle cost. Emissions analysis is completed as a Well-to-Wheel analysis in order to take into account all sources of emissions production. As expected, all powertrains devoid of an engine had lower tailpipe and greenhouse gas emissions. Powertrains powered by battery power alone, however, were not able to achieve the total range target, but developments in the metal-air battery will aid in rectifying this.
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